|Generic Valium (Diazepam)
Valium – An Anti-Anxiety Drug from the Benzodiazepine GroupValium is used to treat various neurosis-like and neurotic conditions accompanied by fear and anxiety. This article provides detailed information about its features, main effects, and possible negative reactions.
Valium is an anxiolytic benzodiazepine drug with pronounced sedative, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and muscle relaxant properties. Its effect is due to the ability to potentiate the central action of gamma-aminobutyric acid, the main CNS inhibitory transmitter. The drug selectively stimulates the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the receptors in the brainstem reticular formation. This leads to decreased activity in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, and limbic system. The muscle relaxant effect is realized due to the inhibitory effect on polysynaptic spinal reflexes.
The average maximum concentration in the blood is reached 1-2 hours after administration. It is approximately 0.2 μg per ml. The initial level of the active substance in the blood decreases rapidly during the first 6 hours, and then gradually over the next 18 hours. The half-life is 20-70 hours. Biotransformation occurs in the liver with the formation of active metabolites. The main metabolite, N-desmethyldiazepam, is detected in the blood 24-36 hours after taking the initial and repeat doses. The drug and its main metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine.
Valium helps to increase the stability of nerve tissue under hypoxic conditions, and also increases the pain threshold, inhibits sympathoadrenal and parasympathetic paroxysms. A dose-dependent effect on the CNS is usually observed: low doses of the drug (2-15 mg per day) have a stimulating effect, and high doses (more than 15 mg per day) have a sedative effect. During treatment, patients report a decrease in emotional stress, fear, anxiety, and restlessness. At the same time, Valium has practically no effect on productive symptoms of psychotic origin (including hallucinations). A decrease in affective tension is rarely observed. People with alcohol withdrawal syndrome report a decrease in the severity of tremors, acute agitation, negativism, acute alcoholic delirium, and hallucinations. The therapeutic effect develops 2-7 days after the start of treatment.
Valium is used in complex treatment and monotherapy of patients with neurotic conditions (including in combination with anxiety syndrome, hysteria, neurasthenia, hypochondria, neurasthenia, and reactive depression), psychosis, and organic CNS diseases. It effectively eliminates psychopathic reactions with pronounced emotional manifestations. The drug gives good results in the treatment of patients with spastic paralysis, epilepsy, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alcoholic delirium, as well as myositis, arthritis, bursitis, arthrosis, rheumatic spondylitis, progressive chronic polyarthritis, which are accompanied by skeletal muscle tension. Valium is also used in pediatric practice to relieve tension and irritability caused by cerebral spasticity (a condition associated with disease or injury affecting the brain or spinal cord and causing weakness, uncoordinated movements, rigidity, and stiffness). It helps relieve muscle spasms caused by tetanus (when taken together with other remedies). Both adults and children can take Valium as a premedication before surgery to promote relaxation and improve sleep.
The optimal dose should be determined by a doctor. The usual dose for adults is 5-20 mg per day, depending on the severity of symptoms. A single dose when taken orally should not exceed 10 mg. Children should take Valium at a dose of 0.1–0.3 mg/kg/day.
The main contraindications to the use of Valium include myasthenia gravis (chronic neuromuscular disease), pregnancy, glaucoma, professional limitations, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines, age under 1 year. It is advisable to refrain from potentially dangerous activities and alcohol consumption during the treatment cycle. Valium should be used with great caution if there is an increased risk of drug addiction. Treatment should be stopped gradually. Otherwise, you may experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
The most common adverse effects of Valium are: • Vertigo; • Tiredness; • Vomiting; • Muscle weakness, etc. These effects tend to be dose-dependent, occur mainly at the beginning stage of treatment, and usually disappear with further use of the drug.